Conducted by the nonprofit, nonpartisan EdWeek Research Center in Nov. 2023, Allovue's 2nd annual, nationally-representative study gathered perspectives from 1,855 U.S.-based educators, using a 39-question survey. Respondents included 467 district leaders, 592 school leaders, and 796 teachers.

In Dec. 2023 and Jan. 2024, the EdWeek Research Center also conducted 1:1 follow-up interviews with 10 teachers and administrators from eight different states.


8 people analyzing a long banner of graphs and data

Key Themes


Education professionals have grown more pessimistic about K-12 finance since 2022 (The Allovue Education Spending Confidence Index Score is -67, down 29 points from last year). Some top concerns include the loss of COVID relief aid, funding that fails to keep pace with inflation, rising costs related to rising student needs, and staffing challenges. Other takeaways:

Confidence in district finance varies somewhat by region.
Respondents from Northeast & Western states show greater pessimism than those from Midwestern & Southern states.
The details of K-12 revenue are not widely known.
Educators tend to underestimate per-pupil funding amounts and overestimate the federal government’s share of funding.
Leaders involved in budgeting worry about accurate forecasting.
A quarter say they have not received PD in this area. 51% say that their budget software is out of date and needs to be modernized.

Quotes & Data


Back to where we were.

“My job is funded with COVID dollars. I will not have this job at the end of the school year unless COVID money is renewed.”
-Middle school math teacher, South Dakota

“Once those one-time monies are gone and we’re in the middle of a recession and we don’t have increased core revenue, we’ll be right back where we were before the pandemic.”
-Principal, California

73% of school & district leaders said the end of COVID relief will have a somewhat, very, or extremely negative impact on their ability to meet students’ needs.


Students are suffering.

“The teachers were on a seven-year salary freeze prior to and following COVID. ... The neighboring districts are larger, and the teachers that leave our district hate working in the larger districts, but they offer better salaries and cheaper health insurance because of their large number of employees. Our students in our district are suffering.”
-Elementary school principal, Indiana

68% of teachers said their salary is unfair; 7 out of 10 in this group said the unfairness makes them want to leave their current jobs.


Do more with less?

“The tenor of our new school board, which is now in place as of early December, is that they are a proponent of a 0 percent tax increase and kind of want us to continue to, I guess, do more with less, if you will. So, I would say it’s really not a good time to take on those types of major expenditures just because it’s likely we would not have the support to do so.”
-District-level director of secondary teaching & learning, Pennsylvania

“The mental health needs of kids since COVID not doubled, not tripled, quadrupled—or even more than that. I can’t even really put a number on that.”
-District-level safety/at-risk coordinator, Tennessee

Survey / 2022


  • On-demand webinar featuring Shashank Aurora (Chief Financial Officer, Des Moines Public Schools), Miguel Marco (Principal, Helen Wittmann Elementary, ABC Unified School District), Zahava Stadler (Project Director, Education Funding Equity Initiative, New America), Holly Kurtz (Director, EdWeek Research Center)


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Founded in 2013 by a former middle school teacher, Allovue builds innovative tech solutions to support school finance administrators and make K-12 spending more equitable and effective. In 2024, Allovue was acquired by PowerSchool.


The EdWeek Research Center is the independent, nonprofit, nonpartisan research arm of Editorial Projects of Education (EPE), publisher of Education Week and EdWeek Market Brief.